Problems in blueberry introduction
I. soil and pH value
Requirements for blueberry Plantation: the slope shall not exceed 10%, the soil pH value shall be 4.0-5.5, and the content of soil organic matter shall not be less than 5%. Loose soil, good drainage performance, sandy loam and sandy soil with sufficient water source. Blueberry is a perennial fruit tree, which can grow for several decades in one cultivation. Long term plan should be made when introducing and cultivating blueberry seedlings. Before purchasing blueberry seedlings, make sure to adjust the ground and acid in advance. Brown soil, yellow soil, red soil and eluvial soil are all acid soil, which are more suitable for blueberry planting. Some weak acid and neutral soils can be planted after improvement. If the pH value of the soil is above 7.0, it will make it more difficult to plant blueberries, so the amount of sulfur powder and organic matter should be increased to solve the problem; for example, blueberries should not be planted in calcareous soil, saline alkali soil, land with very heavy viscosity and no irrigation conditions, which is easy to lose.
II. Climatic conditions
1. Blueberry and cooling requirement
Different varieties of blueberry need different cooling capacity, so it is necessary to determine the appropriate blueberry varieties according to the local temperature conditions. Blueberries are divided into four groups: dwarf, half high, north high, rabbit eye and South high. Among them, dwarf, semi high and North High shrubs belong to the northern type of blueberry variety group. Their main characteristics are: more cooling capacity is needed in winter, generally 800-1000 hours, and they can withstand low temperature below - 30 ℃ in winter. The rabbit eye and the South high bush belong to the South type blueberry variety group, whose main characteristics are as follows:
It needs less cooling in winter, generally under 600 hours (≤ 7.2 ℃ accumulated temperature), and the lowest temperature tolerance in winter is about - 15 ℃. High, half high and low bush blueberries need 800-1060 hours of cooling capacity. If they can't meet the cooling capacity in winter, they will only grow trees and have no fruit.
2. Blueberry and weather
High, semi high and low bush blueberries like cold, cool and humid climate. If there is no sprinkling irrigation facilities, it is not suitable for cultivation in high temperature, dry and rainless areas. In the north of China, high bush blueberries need to be protected from cold. In January, the average temperature of high bush blueberries planted in the north of China is less than - 3 ℃, and generally there is little frost damage. In summer, high bush blueberries planted in the Yangtze River Basin are prone to heat damage. In production, the average temperature of July is more than 28 ℃.
1. Air management
Every morning after work and 4 p.m., shake the following film from one end of the shed, so that the hot air in the shed flows out and the fresh air enters, so as to increase the air mobility. If the temperature above 30 ℃ lasts for several days, check the small arch shed at noon, and properly ventilate and cool down.
2. Temperature and light management
After 8:30 in the morning, when the temperature in the small arch shed is about 26 degrees, the first layer of sunshade shall be covered. If the temperature continues to rise due to excessive light, the second layer of sunshade shall be covered at about 10:30. After 4 p.m., when the temperature in the shed is below 28 degrees, remove the top sunshade of the shed, and remove the second sunshade when the temperature in the shed drops to about 24 degrees when the sun light weakens for some time. Before work, roll down the film on both sides of the shed to cover the heat preservation, but there should be a vent around to ensure the growth of blueberry seedlings at a suitable temperature. It is not necessary to cover sunscreen in cloudy and rainy days, and the height of roll film depends on the humidity and temperature in the basin.
The laser perpetual lamp can provide sufficient light to promote plant growth and help plants to photosynthesis.
Extend the effective lighting time, increase the sugar content of crops and improve the quality of crops.
Notice of working time of laser plant fill light
Make up light starts at 16:00 and closes automatically at 10:00 the next day
Rotate every 4 hours, work for 16 hours, supplement light for 8 hours per mu
Open 16:00-20:00 (East or South)
20:01-24:00 (West or North)
24:00-02:00 the light will turn off automatically
Kai 02:00-06:00 (East or South)
06:01-10:00 (West or North)
3. Water management
From ten a.m. to four p.m. every morning, water or groundwater is collected to provide intermittent spray, moisturizing and cooling for cuttings, so as to ensure that the cuttings are not dehydrated. Before callus formation, a layer of water film should be kept on the leaf surface. When the root system is not formed, the substrate humidity should be controlled about 75%, and the air relative humidity should be controlled about 85% ~ 90%. After the callus was formed, spray could be properly reduced and spray began to decrease when the water film decreased to 1/3.
The standard of non rooted cuttings spray is: when the last spray leaves moisture gradually volatilized, when 2/3 leaves are just dried, 1/3 leaves still have moisture, start the next spray.
4. Water and soil management
1) soil management: blueberry roots are distributed shallowly, and they are thin and have no root hair, so the soil is required to be loose and well ventilated.
2) fertilization: organic fertilizer is recommended.
3) irrigation: the roots of blueberry are distributed shallowly and wet, so it is necessary to irrigate in time. Attention should be paid to the water source and quality of blueberry irrigation. Generally, the pH value of deep well water is high, and the content of sodium and calcium is high. Long-term use will affect the growth and yield of blueberry.
The ripening period of rabbit eye and South high bush blueberry is different. Generally, they need to be harvested for 20-30 days, usually once a week. The fruit should be picked manually when it is fresh, and it can be picked mechanically for processing.
There are fungal diseases, bacterial diseases and nematodes that cause blueberry diseases. China is a new area of introduction and cultivation, with less occurrence of diseases and insect pests.