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LED Grow Light Plant growth lamp
 
A plant growth lamp is an artificial light source, usually an electric light source, intended to stimulate plant growth by emitting an electromagnetic spectrum suitable for photosynthesis. Plant lights are used in applications that do not have natural light or need to fill light. For example, in winter, when possible daylight hours may not be sufficient to achieve the desired plant growth, the lights are used to extend the time the plants receive light. If the plants don't get enough light, they will grow up.
 
LED Grow Light Introduction
A plant growth lamp is an artificial light source, usually an electric light source, intended to stimulate plant growth by emitting an electromagnetic spectrum suitable for photosynthesis. Plant lights are used in applications that do not have natural light or need to fill light. For example, in winter, when possible daylight hours may not be sufficient to achieve the desired plant growth, the lights are used to extend the time the plants receive light. If the plants don't get enough light, they will grow up.
The light that grows either tries to provide a spectrum similar to the sun, or provides a spectrum that is more suitable for the needs of the cultivated plant, the spectrum
. Simulate outdoor conditions from different colors of growth lamps, temperature and spectral output, and change the lumen output (intensity) of the lamp. Depending on the type of plant being cultivated, the stage of cultivation (such as germination/nutrition or flowering/resulting period) and the photoperiod required by the plant, the specific range of the spectrum, the luminous efficiency and the color temperature are all desirable plants and time periods.
In 1868, the Russian botanist Andrei Famintsyn was the first to use artificial light for plant growth and research.
 
 
 
LED Grow Light Typical usage
Plant lights are used for indoor gardening, plant reproduction and food production, including indoor hydroponics and aquatic plants. Although most plant lights are used industrially, they can also be used in the home.
According to the inverse square law, the intensity of the light radiated from the point source (in this case the bulb) reaching the surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the surface source (if an object is twice as far away, it only receives four One-of-a-kind light) This is a serious obstacle for indoor growers, and many techniques are used to use light as efficiently as possible. Therefore, reflectors are often used for lighting to maximize light efficiency. The luminaires or luminaires move as close as possible so that they have the same illumination and all of the light from the lights falls on the plants rather than the surrounding area.
For example, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps (HIDs), and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Today, the most widely used lamps are HID and fluorescent lamps. Indoor flower and vegetable growers typically use high pressure sodium (HPS / SON) and metal halide (MH) HID lamps, but fluorescent lamps and LEDs replace metal halides due to their efficiency and economy.
Metal halide lamps are often used in the nutritional phase of plant growth because they emit a greater amount of blue and ultraviolet radiation. With the introduction of ceramic metal halide illumination and full-spectrum metal halide illumination, they are increasingly being used as the exclusive source of vegetative propagation stages. Blue spectrum may induce a greater nutritional response in plants.
High pressure sodium lamps are also used as a single source of light throughout the vegetative and reproductive stages. Again, they can be used as a correction for full-spectrum illumination in the reproductive phase. Red spectrum may trigger a greater flowering response in plants. If a high-pressure sodium lamp is used as the vegetative period, the plants grow slightly faster.
In recent years, LED indoor growth lamps can generate light of a specific wavelength. NASA has tested the space station to increase the efficiency of space food. The results show that plants are affected by light in the red, green and blue portions of the visible spectrum. [1] 
 
 
 
LED Grow Light Common type
High intensity discharge (HID) lamp
Although fluorescent lamps are a common type of indoor growth lamp in the past, HID lamps are now the most popular. High intensity discharge lamps have high lumens/watt efficiency. There are several different types of HID lamps, including mercury vapor, metal halides, high pressure sodium and conversion bulbs. Metal halides and HPS lamps produce some chromatograms that are somewhat similar to the sun and can be used to grow plants. Mercury vapor lamps are the first HIDs and are widely used in street lighting, but when it comes to indoor gardening, they produce a relatively poor spectrum of plant growth, so they are mostly replaced by other types of HIDs as growing plants.
All HID growth lamps require a ballast to operate, each ballast having a specific wattage. Popular HID powers include 150W, 250W, 400W, 600W and 1000W. Among all sizes, the 600W HID lamp is the most efficient, followed by the 1000W, 600W HPS with 7% more light than the 1000W HPS.
Although all HID lamps use the same principle, different types of bulbs have different starting and voltage requirements, as well as different operating characteristics and physical shapes. Because such a bulb will not work properly unless a matching ballast is used, even if the bulb is installed. In addition to producing lower levels of light, mismatched bulbs and ballasts will stop working or even burn out immediately.
LED (Light Emitting Diode)
LED illuminators consist of light-emitting diodes, usually in a housing with a heat sink or built-in fan. LED lights usually do not require a separate ballast and can be plugged directly into a standard power outlet for direct use.
LED growth lamps vary depending on the application. It is known from the study of photomorphogenesis that green, red, far red and blue light spectra have an effect on root formation, plant growth and flowering, but there is not enough scientific research or field testing to recommend specific color ratios using LED growth lamps. It has been shown that many plants will grow normally if red and blue light are applied. However, many studies have shown that red and blue light provide only the most cost-effective growth method, and that plant growth is still better under light-supplemental green.
The white LED growth lamp provides a full spectrum designed to mimic natural light and provide plants with a balanced spectrum of red, blue and green. The spectrum used is different, but the white LED growth lamps are designed to emit a similar amount of red and blue light, and the added green light will appear white. White LED illuminators are commonly used for supplemental lighting in homes and office spaces.
A large number of plant species have been evaluated in greenhouse trials to ensure that plants have higher quality in biomass and biochemical composition, even comparable to field conditions. The plant performance of mint, basil, lentils, lettuce, cabbage, parsley, and carrots was measured by assessing the health and vitality of the plants and the success of growth. Promote the selection of large quantities of ornamental plants.
In the LED growth lamp test conducted by Philips Lighting, in order to find the best light formula for planting various vegetables in the greenhouse, they found that the following aspects of light affect plant growth photosynthesis and plant development morphological light intensity, total light over time Change which moments of the day, (spectrum), light direction and light are distributed on the plant. However, it is worth noting that in the test between tomatoes, mini cucumbers and sweet peppers, the best recipes for all plants are different, depending on the crop and region, so they must now optimize the LEDs in the greenhouse according to the test. Lighting and errors. They have shown that LED light affects disease resistance, taste and nutritional levels, but by 2014 they have not found a practical way to use this information.
The diode design for the initial LED light emitting diode is typically 1/3 watt to 1 watt. However, LED growth lamps now typically use higher power diodes, such as 3 watt and 5 watt diodes. For highly compact areas, COB chips between 10 watts and 100 watts can be used. These chips are generally less efficient due to heat dissipation.
LED growth lights should keep the plants at least 12 inches (30 cm) away from the plants to prevent leaf burns.
Fluorescent light
Fluorescent lamps have many form factors, including long, thin bulbs and smaller energy-saving lamps. The color temperature of fluorescent lamps ranges from 2700K to 10,000K. Luminous efficiency ranges from 30 lm/W to 90 lm/W. [1] 
 
 
LED Grow Light Chromatography
Different growth lamps produce different spectra. The plant growth pattern responds to the chromatogram of light, a process that is completely separate from photosynthesis and is called photomorphogenesis.
Natural daylighting has a high color temperature (about 5000-5800 K). The color of visible light varies depending on the weather and the angle of the sun, and the specific amount of light (in lumens) stimulates photosynthesis. The distance from the sun has little effect on the quality and quantity of light in these seasons and the resulting seasonal changes in plant behavior. The axis of the earth is not perpendicular to the plane of the orbit around the sun. In the first half of the year, the North Pole tilted toward the Sun, so the Northern Hemisphere is close to direct sunlight, while the Southern Hemisphere must cross more atmosphere before reaching the Earth's surface. In the other half year, this is the opposite. The color spectrum of the light radiated by the sun does not change, only the quantity (more in summer, less in winter) and the quality of the entire light reaches the surface of the earth. Some supplemental LED growth lamps in a vertical greenhouse produce only a combination of red and blue wavelengths. The color rendering index compares the degree to which light matches the natural color of conventional sunlight.
The ability of plants to absorb light varies with species and environment, however, a general measure of the quality of light affecting plants is the PAR value or photosynthetically active radiation.
There have been several experiments using LEDs to grow plants, and it has been shown that plants need red and blue light for healthy growth. It has been found from experiments that the leaves of plants grown only under red (660 nm) are poorly deformed, but most plants can grow normally by adding a small amount of blue. [1] 
 
 
LED Grow Light Plant light requirements
The specific needs of plants determine which lighting is best for optimal growth, and artificial light must mimic the natural light that plants best fit. If a plant does not get enough light, it will not grow, regardless of other conditions. For example, vegetables grow best in full sunlight and thrive indoors, they need the same high light levels, and leaf plants (such as velvet) grow in the shade and can grow at a lower light level.
The way in which plant lights are used depends on the stage of plant growth. In general, it is recommended that the plants receive 16 hours of rest during the seedling/growth phase, 8 hours of rest; the vegetative stage receives 18 hours of rest, 6 hours of rest; and the flowering stage receives 12 hours and 12 hours of rest.
Photoperiod
In addition, many plants also require darkness and photoperiod, an effect known as the photoperiod to trigger flowering. Therefore, the switch can turn the light on or off at the set time. The optimal ratio of photoperiods depends on the type and type of plant, as some prefer long and short nights, while others prefer opposite or medium lengths.
When discussing plant development, the photoperiod is highly valued.
Plants that respond to photoperiod may have a facultative or specific response. A part-time reaction means that a plant will eventually spend light, regardless of how the photoperiod grows faster at a particular photoperiod. Professional response means that plants can only be grown if they are grown under certain light conditions.
Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)
Usually used to measure the brightness and lumens of light, but they are luminosity units that measure the intensity of light perceived by the human eye. As shown
 
The spectral level of light that can be used for photosynthesis is similar to, but not identical to, measured by lumens. Therefore, when measuring the amount of light in plant photosynthesis, biologists typically measure the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) that plants receive. PAR represents the spectral range of solar radiation from 400 to 700 nanometers, which generally corresponds to the spectral range that photosynthetic organisms can use during photosynthesis. 

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